Jordanian police stand guard during a protest against the government's… (Raad Adayleh/AP )
AMMAN, Jordan — Jordan had seen scores of anti-government protests, but nothing like this: For three straight nights last week, mobs angered over rising fuel prices rampaged through a half-dozen cities, torching cars and police stations and rekindling fears that one of America’s closest Arab allies in the Middle East was foundering.
Then, almost as suddenly, the storm appeared to pass. Weekend demonstrations in Amman drew smaller crowds, and by Monday, officials were quietly celebrating signs of normality after the worst unrest here in 15 years.
“It will be hot for a while,” said a senior security official, insisting on anonymity to discuss intelligence assessments of the uprising’s trajectory. “But we see things calming down, gradually.”
Just how calm, and for how long, remains to be seen. A week after the disturbances began, new protests are flaring up daily in the Jordanian capital, though most have been orderly, with participants numbering in the low hundreds. Government officials, meanwhile, are bracing for more economic turmoil in the coming weeks as they grapple with rising joblessness and a record budget deficit expected to surpass 10 percent of the country’s gross domestic product.
Yet Western and Jordanian officials alike expressed confidence this week that Jordan’s government had successfully weathered the most serious challenge to its survival since the start of the Arab Spring movement nearly two years ago. With the protests seemingly contained for now, Jordanian officials were fielding new offers of aid from Persian Gulf states while handing out cash payments to ease the pain of price increases among the poor and working class.
“Once these protests are behind us, it will still be a difficult year ahead,” Foreign Minister Nasser Judeh said in an interview. “The one thing I can tell you is this: In the ’40s, ’50s and ’60s, whenever bad things happened in the region, people would question Jordan’s stability. But they’re all gone, and we’re still here.”
The government’s decision to cut fuel subsidies on Nov. 13 sent tens of thousands into the streets across Jordan, triggering violent clashes as well as unprecedented calls for the overthrow of King Abdullah II, the country’s popular monarch. Rioting Jordanians set fire to government buildings, and some fired guns at police in melees that left one protester dead and wounded scores of people, including more than 50 police officers.
Yet ardor for revolution faded — temporarily, at least — as the country’s main opposition group, the Muslim Brotherhood, distanced itself from demands to end the monarchy. Jordanian officials have accused the religious group of attempting to leverage public furor over price increases into a broader uprising.
“We are against calls for regime change,” said Hamzah Mansour, leader of the Brotherhood’s political arm, which toned down its rhetoric against the government after protests turned unexpectedly violent last week. “We have called, and always will call, for regime reform and democratic reforms.”
Jordanian officials and many independent observers attributed the easing tensions to the country’s security forces, which they say acted with restraint in tolerating peaceful protests while keeping violence from spreading. They also cited the government’s decision to make quick cash payments to millions of poorer Jordanians affected by the subsidy cuts. By Tuesday, more than a million people in this country of 6 million had applied online for cash compensation of about $600, according to a government statement.
The widespread violence also appears to have shocked many ordinary Jordanians, including many who support the demonstrators’ calls for political reform. Judeh, the foreign minister, described last week’s violence as an aberration, out of character with what he described as a Jordanian tradition for tolerance and evolutionary change.
“We don’t loot; we don’t burn tires,” Judeh said. “We’ve set a fantastic example, especially over the last two years responding to the Arab Spring, with peaceful demonstrations, freedom of expression, and in the way the security services responded.”
Judeh acknowledged a “feeling of anger” that underlay the protests. “It is an economic thing, but it will contain itself,” he said. “People will realize in the long term that what the government did was for the people’s benefit.”
Yet, amid the sighs of relief in Amman were new warnings about the formidable challenges facing Jordan, which has long been regarded as a pillar of stability in the Middle East as one of only two Arab countries with diplomatic ties to Israel. The cuts in fuel subsidies that triggered the protests were among several emergency measures intended to stop the country’s fiscal hemorrhaging.